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Recently, scientists and mental health professionals decided to classify problem gambling as a behavioral addiction, the first of its kind, putting it in a category of disorders that also includes substance abuse.
The reason for this change comes from neuroscience research, which has shown that gambling addicts have a lot in common with drug and alcohol addicts, including changes in behavior and brain activity.
Gambling disorder refers to the uncontrollable urge to gamble, despite serious personal consequences. Problem gambling can impact a person's interpersonal relationships, financial situation, and physical and mental health.
Yet it has only recently been recognized as an addiction. Problem gambling was first classified as a psychiatric disorder in In , it was renamed "gambling disorder" and moved to the Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders category, which includes alcohol and drug addictions.
The decision to move gambling disorder alongside substance use disorders reflects a new understanding of the underlying commonalities between gambling and other addictions.
There is a growing body of neuroscience and psychology research suggesting problem gambling is similar to drug addiction. Many of the diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder share features with those for drug dependence, such as tolerance, withdrawal, repeated unsuccessful attempts to cut back or quit, and major interference in one's life.
Problem gamblers also report cravings and highs in response to gambling. Problem gambling also runs in families, alongside other addictions.
There may be some common genetic or brain differences in people who are more inclined to develop addictions, Petry says. For example, research shows that problem gamblers and drug addicts share many of the same genetic predispositions for impulsivity and reward-seeking behaviors.
Much of the research that supports classifying gambling disorder with other addictions comes from brain imaging studies and neurochemical tests.
These have revealed commonalities in the way that gambling and drugs of abuse act on the brain, and the way the brains of addicts respond to such cues.
The evidence indicates that gambling activates the brain's reward system in much the same way that a drug does. The ventral striatum, located deep inside the brain, has been termed the brain's reward center, and it's been implicated in reward processing as well as substance abuse.
When people with gambling disorder watch gambling videos or participate in simulated gambling while their brains are being scanned, scientists can see changes in blood flow in specific brain areas, indicating which areas are more active.
In one study, both problem gamblers and cocaine addicts watched videos related to their addictions while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI scanner.
Both groups showed diminished activation in the ventral striatum compared to healthy control participants. Problem gamblers also showed less ventral striatum activity during simulated gambling games and during the anticipation of monetary rewards than did people without gambling problems.
They argue that people prone to addiction have an underactive brain reward system and that such people are drawn to ways to stimulate their reward pathways, which can include the highs of drugs and gambling.
The other brain region that is often implicated in gambling and substance use disorders is the prefrontal cortex. This region is involved in decision-making, controlling impulsivity, and cognitive control.
Several studies have shown that problem gamblers and drug addicts both showed less activation of the prefrontal cortex in response to gambling-related cues.
Many studies have shown that people with gambling disorder are more impulsive than other people. They may have difficulty controlling their impulses due to reduced activation of the prefrontal cortex.
Despite these studies, it is still unclear whether gambling changes the brain. People might inherently have differences in brain structure and function that lead to gambling problems, or disordered gambling could cause changes in the brain — or some combination of the two could be possible.
In particular, we need to study people early in this trajectory, those who gamble recreationally but for whom it hasn't yet become a problem.
We need to follow them as some escalate their gambling into high-risk behavior and others do not. This kind of research could help identify who is at risk of developing gambling and substance abuse problems.
Scientists who study problem gambling hope that understanding the full complexity of the underlying neuroscience will eventually help parse out individual differences in the disorder.
The evidence from brain studies points to many shared characteristics of gambling disorder and other addictions. Problem gamblers resemble drug addicts, not only in their behavior, but also in their brains.
This has led to a new understanding of addiction: What used to be thought of as dependency on a chemical is now being defined as the repeated pursuit of a rewarding experience in spite of serious repercussions.
That experience could be the high from a drug or the high of winning a bet, because behaviors can be addictive, too.
Mary Bates Mary Bates is a freelance science writer interested in the brains and behavior of humans and other animals.
For her graduate degree in psychology, she studied the echolocation abilities of big brown bats. She has written for Psychology Today, Scientific American's Mind Matters blog, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and other print and online publications.
DeCaria CM, Hollander E, Grossman R, Wong CM. Diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment of pathological gambling.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Vol 57 Suppl 8 : In an ethical analysis, Thomas Hibbs, professor of ethics and culture at Baylor University , a private Baptist -affiliated institution, compared cadaver displays to pornography, in that they reduce the subject to "the manipulation of body parts stripped of any larger human significance.
In a lecture entitled "Plasti-Nation: How America was Won",  Lucia Tanassi, professor of medical ethics and anthropology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center , explored questions for ethicists regarding this new scientific frontier.
Tanassi called it provocative that ethics committees have contributed to the popularization of the exhibits without setting forth any process of a line of inquiry, pointing to an ethics report from the California Science Center.
As part of that review, bioethicist Hans Martin Sass was sent to Heidelberg to match donor consents with death certificates. Concerns have been expressed about the educational aspects, especially the inclusion of these displays for school field trips.
Louis Diocese Archbishop Raymond Burke strongly suggested that Catholic Schools avoid scheduling field trips, stating that parents, and not children, should retain the freedom of deciding whether or not their children will view the exhibit.
Christoph Reiners questions what effect the exhibits will have on the values of children attending for school field trips. Religious groups, including representatives of the Catholic Church  and some Jewish rabbis  have objected to the display of human remains, stating that it is inconsistent with reverence towards the human body.
In , while promoting a display in the Hamburg Museum of Erotica , von Hagens announced his intention to create a sex plastinate. In , the Bishop of Manchester launched a campaign  to coincide with the opening of Body Worlds in that city, accusing the exhibitors of being "body snatchers" and "robbing the NHS", arguing that donation of bodies for plastination would deprive the National Health Service of organs for transplant.
The site included a government petition calling for "a review of the law regarding the policies and practices of touring shows involving corpses".
Von Hagens has maintained tight copyright control over pictures of his exhibits. Visitors were not allowed to take pictures, and press photographers were required to sign restrictive agreements permitting only a single publication in a defined context, followed by a return of the copyright to Von Hagens.
Because of a similar agreement applied to sound bites O-Töne, in German a German press organization suggested that the press refrain from reporting about the exhibition in Munich in The Body Worlds website offers plastinated pieces for sale.
There are a wide range of products from plastinated fruit jewelry to entire humans. Although some of the pieces require purchasers to be a qualified user—those intending to use the pieces for "research, educational, medical or therapeutic purposes"  —many pieces, including animal testicles and baby chicks, require no authorization.
There are also extremely realistic plastinate impressions of human hearts and slices including one slice of copulating humans [ citation needed ] for sale to the general public.
The success of Body Worlds has given rise to several similar shows featuring plastinated cadavers, including BODIES Some of these contain exhibits very similar to von Hagens' plastinates; Von Hagens has asserted copyright protection, and has sued Body Exploration and Bodies Revealed.
The suits were based on a presumed copyright of certain positions of the bodies, but the counterparty asserts that the human body in its diversity cannot be copyrighted.
Such lawsuits  have not stopped the competition. While the Korean police in Seoul confiscated a few exhibits from Bodies Revealed ,  the exhibition went on successfully.
Several of the competing exhibitions have been organized by the publicly traded US company Premier Exhibitions.
They started their first Bodies Revealed exhibition in Blackpool, England which ran from August through October In and the company opened their Bodies Revealed and BODIES The Exhibition exhibitions in Seoul, Tampa, Miami, New York City, and Seattle.
Other exhibition sites in were Mexico City; Atlanta, Georgia, US; London; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Unlike Body Worlds , none of the competing exhibitions or their suppliers have a body donation programme.
Dr Roy Glover, a spokesperson for BODIES The Exhibition said all their exhibits use unclaimed cadavers from China, a category which the Laogai Research Foundation has charged could include executed prisoners.
New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo commented: "Despite repeated denials, we now know that Premier itself cannot demonstrate the circumstances that led to the death of the individuals.
Nor is Premier able to establish that these people consented to their remains being used in this manner. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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